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Top 5 articles of 2018!

We are fortunate to see an increase in visits to our website in 2018 with lots of help from our active volunteers! Now we present the top 5 articles visitors read on our website in 2018.

5. How to deal with religious accommodations in the Workplace

Freedom of religion, in Canada, is a constitutionally protected right that allows religious believers the freedom to assemble and worship without limitation or interference. Religious discrimination is treating individuals differently in their employment because of their religion, their religious beliefs and practices, denying their reasonable request for accommodation or a change in a workplace rule or policy that denies employees equal opportunities due to their religious beliefs or practices. Canadian employers are required to accommodate the reasonable needs of religious employees in the workplace.

4. Women in the Workplace: The Hidden Battle

Throughout our history, women have adopted new roles from working as a housewife to entering the workplace and providing for their family or oneself. As women entered the workplace, we saw issues of sexual harassment, unequal pay and opportunity starting to emerge. These issues are still seen and frequently voiced today as women are continuously taking a stand for their rights. Unfortunately, there are many issues that go unnoticed that need to be addressed. Every day women have to prove that they are just as good or better than their counterparts and when they fail to do so they are labeled as weak, incompetent or just plain lazy.

3. Lack of Diversity in the Workplace Can Cause Stress Among Employees

The success of an organization in today’s competitive world depends upon how well it embraces the challenges of diversity and realizes its benefits. Employees from different backgrounds, ages and ethnicities bring their own set of experiences and world views, and are better able to provide a wider range of solutions to developing problems. Most of all, a lack of diversity has been linked to increased discrimination which in turn leads to elevated stress levels among employees. The National Center for Biotechnology Information note that discrimination due to immigrant status, legal status, skin tone or language can contribute to increased stress in individuals.

2. The Pros and Cons of Hiring Older Employees vs. Younger Employees

Ever thought you would one day be in a position where you would have the decision on your hands to make or break someone’s career? Well if you are, here is something that you might come across depending on the nature of your job. This article aims to analyze some of the main factors to consider while picking the right person for the job. At the very outset, I must make it clear that I am referring to older as in more experienced professionals and not just being ageist.

1. Workplace Issues and Solutions

There are a variety of workplace issues that both employers and employees encounter. Some of these issues are minor while other workplace issues are more significant and require frequent attention from employees for the workplace to function properly. While it is the responsibility of management to take steps to develop strategies to combat workplace issues, employees also have a responsibility to speak up when they recognize issues that contribute to or may eventually lead to problems.

This article was mostly contributed to and edited by J2DW volunteers!

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Lack of Diversity in the Workplace Can Cause Stress Among Employees

This is a sponsored article.

The success of an organization in today’s competitive world depends upon how well it embraces the challenges of diversity and realizes its benefits. Employees from different backgrounds, ages and ethnicities bring their own set of experiences and world views, and are better able to provide a wider range of solutions to developing problems. Most of all, a lack of diversity has been linked to increased discrimination which in turn leads to elevated stress levels among employees. The National Center for Biotechnology Information note that discrimination due to immigrant status, legal status, skin tone or language can contribute to increased stress in individuals.

So how do companies deal with the diversity in the workplace? U.S. companies spend millions of dollars every year on diversity programs and policies, ranging from equal employment opportunity compliance to cultural sensitivity training programs. This leads most people to assume that it makes companies fairer to both women and minorities; the reality is much different, however. Implementing diversity program has little actual positive effect and may even decrease representation according to the Harvard Business Review. Even when there is clear evidence of discrimination, the mere presence of a diversity policy automatically leads people to discount any claims of wrongdoing.

This leads to increased stress levels and with long-term discrimination can lead to acute and chronic stress. The body enters a defensive posture which closes our ability to learn and impairs judgement. Statistics Canada states that over one in four workers report being highly stressed and over 62% of workers reported that work is the main source of stress in their lives.
Lottoland describes this kind of stress as ‘distress’, which could be permanent, prevents the body from coping, is demotivating and decreases productivity. As opposed to ‘eustress’ which is a euphoric stress that can actually motivate, increase productivity and make us feel excited. Strong leaders create a stress-free environment where people do not need to get into that kind of defensive posture.

Diversity should be a critical component of the innovation that leaders strive to achieve in their organization, and research shows that diverse groups outperform homogenous ones. Research conducted by Credit Suisse focusing on 2,400 companies, found that organizations with at least one female board member yielded higher returns on equity and net income growth than those who did not employ women on their board. Working with people from different backgrounds than you will challenge your brain to think more diversely and expand your horizons. The effect of this relationship is that the brain is happier which in turn lowers stress levels and makes a person generally happier as well.

Workplace diversity can, however, have some unwanted effects which leaders must manage effectively by promoting diversity of thought and innovation. Here at Journey to Diversity Workplaces we say that diversity brings about a variety of ethical issues like sexual harassment due to sexual orientation, racism and gender bias. These are critical situations that interfere with work, personal lives and cause high levels of stress both in the workplace and at home. Particularly in a company that is lacking gender and racial diversity these unwanted effects can be more pronounced. A good leader, therefore, must be fair to manage diversity effectively and when employees enter that stressful phase, the leader must be able to pull them out if it. When people experience fair treatment and a positive and genuine diversity, it will in turn reduce their stress levels and improve their health.

This sponsored article was edited by volunteer editor Erin Murphy.

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News

Women in the Workplace: The Hidden Battle

Introduction

Throughout our history, women have adopted new roles from working as a housewife to entering the workplace and providing for their family or oneself. As women entered the workplace, we saw issues of sexual harassment, unequal pay and opportunity starting to emerge. These issues are still seen and frequently voiced today as women are continuously taking a stand for their rights. Unfortunately, there are many issues that go unnoticed that need to be addressed. Every day women have to prove that they are just as good or better than their counterparts and when they fail to do so they are labeled as weak, incompetent or just plain lazy.

In the recent years, the discrepancy between men and women has hardly narrowed down. As per statistics, even though roughly the same number of men and women enter the corporate world, it is not odd to see that the percentage of men who climb up the managerial positions are double that of women (Fuhrmans, 2017). A Woman generally has three different stages in her career and with every stage comes a different challenge. Take note that even though there is no particular challenge that emerges within a certain stage, we do see common denominators that go hand in hand with certain stages.

Stage one

Typically women in this stage are young and just starting out in their career and are very ambitious, wanting to climb the corporate ladder. It is in this stage that women are most likely to be subjected to sexual harassment. Being at an entry level position and trying to move up is difficult and some men may try and use that to their advantage. Many women are seen as objects rather than a human being and are preyed against by males. We see sexual harassment being conducted in a number of ways. Such as men in authoritative positions trying to use their title and power to attract and control women. Men who conduct such acts tend to pick on women whom they think are easy targets, would have no one to turn to and who would not be able to stand up for their own rights (Reddy 2017). Sexual harassment is a common issue that all women want to eradicate. This is one of the most shameful and grave challenges that women face at the workplace.

Another challenge women face during this stage is finding a role model, someone they can look up to. Nowadays there are a lot of both men and women leaders in the workplace but very few female role models that other women can look up to. Men leaders tend to train those that look up to them to be like them and when women turn to males as role models, they receive a different result than what a male would see. Since men and women think and communicate differently, it therefore causes women who seek help from men to feel detached and disoriented (Reddy, 2017). We do see some women turning to other female coworkers that are on the same level as them for guidance or learning to make their own path.

Stage two

Stage two typically emerges for women who want start a family and become mothers. Naturally, we see the family becoming a dominant priority and the career coming second. The work-life balance is always a hidden battle for women as throughout centuries women were seen as the sole homemakers and as somebody who would take care of the family at home. Nowadays it is not always set and stone for which parent will take time of to stay at home with the child when it’s born. When women are the ones to take time off and go on maternity leave, we do not see less challenges emerging for them. Maternity leave is not so much of a hidden challenge, but it is one that should be made aware of. Most women who go on maternity leave tend to do so near the newborn’s delivery date and after the baby is born. What needs to be made aware is the stress and discomfort women feel as they work during the nine-month pregnancy. Women not only have to carry and care for another human being inside of them but they also have to deliver the same amount of work productivity and expectations. It is hard for soon-to-be mothers to keep stress levels low and be in a healthy state of mind when they still have to prepare and give presentations at office meetings and ensure to hit tight deadlines all while their bodies are changing (Reddy, 2017).

It sometimes doesn’t get any easier for women once they come back after maternity leave as they have more obstacles to face. Some women are thrown back into the heavy workload they had before leaving while others have to prove their worth to the company all over again. Thankfully we are starting to see changes occurring to help women bridge the gap of returning to work from maternity leave, as corporate firms are now introducing flexible policies for women (Reddy, 2017).

Third stage

The third stage directly correlates with stage two as children are now grown up and house responsibilities for the mother have subsided. We see women shifting their focus to their careers again but are faced with an enormous challenge. It is easier for women who choose to work part time or flexible hours when they were raising their children to transfer back into full time work. Those who took a leave of absence from work for an extended period of time have great trouble reentering the job market. They are seeing that large changes have occurred as technology advances and women are finding it more difficult to get their foot in the door again than when they first entered the job market. Not having recent work experience or keeping updated with where their specific industry is going are all factors that hinder the likelihood of women who took time off taking care of their children to find work in their field again.

Another major issue that arises in stage three is ego clashing. As women climb the corporate ladder and reach management and senior positions, it may cause ego clashing as some men consider themselves superior to women. Some men try to surpass their female manager, look for faults or they may simply not cooperate with orders given to them. It is challenging for women to have to deal with and it is sometimes beneficial to find alternative approaches in communicating and handling difficult people.

Power play politics in the workplace have been in place for a while now and men were seen as the only players. We are now starting to see power struggles occur, as women are starting to fight back and not surrender power to men. Women have to work vigorously to survive these power play politics and for some it is a crucial part for them to get hired in upper management (Reddy, 2017). Meanwhile, a lot of men are automatic contenders and go through far less scrutiny and obstacles to be considered for certain roles. Power play politics takes a lot of hardship out on a women and it sometimes can disturb ones emotional and mental peace. Power play is one such challenge that all women have to deal with no matter what sector they work in (Reddy, 2017). It is an unfortunate part of our society but women are starting to make real head way in the issue.

Conclusion

Challenges are found at every stage of life and not just in the workforce. It is important to move out of comfort zones and explore different avenues and for a lot of women, the more challenges they face, the more satisfaction they get from their achievements. While all these things are imminent for a well-rounded personality, some of the workplace battles which women face every day hinder their overall well being. There is a lot of energy and effort that women put into overcoming these challenges and issues in hopes that one day, women won’t have to go through the same obstacles and challenges that they did.

References

Fuhrmans, V. (2017). The Hidden Battle fo the Sexes at work. Retrieved 12 11, 2017, from The Wall Street Journal: https://www.wsj.com

Reddy, K. (2017). Women in the Workplace: Top 10 Issues and Challenges. Retrieved 12 08, 2017, from Wise Step.com: https://content.wisestep.com

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Voices of our Nation

Communication and Other Workplace Barriers

Communication in the workplace is affected by a number of factors, some of which are recognizable to the worker while other are more complex and require a closer look. For example, there is a co-worker that you feel is unapproachable and as a result, you might prefer to procrastinate and not ask them questions or notify them of certain information. It could be any numerous of reasons that you feel this way, they looked at you funny, said a rude remark or cut you off in a meeting. However, without cutting to the chase of the problem and approaching them, you unconsciously created that barrier that made it difficult for you to approach them.

Over time, if there is no effective communication, it does weaken the bonds between the employers, employees and the organization as a whole. For example, a newly recruited employee is unsure if their work is up to par and if they completed it correctly, but they are intimidated by their senior. They may choose to go to a co-worker or other senior who may or may not be able to guide them as effectively and could consequently cause the work to suffer along with the credibility of the employee.

We underestimate the power of communication at a workplace such as sending quick emails, texts, phone calls, memos and of course the coffee breaks. Misunderstanding and miscommunications are common, hence it is important to overcome these barriers to build a healthy working environment.

Some common communication barriers are:

1) Distractions – getting distracted during a presentation or meeting and wanting to save face and not admit to these distractions, you don’t ask a colleague on what was said while your mind wandered (we do have an attention span of only 20 mins). Therefore you choose to input whatever you thought they said, which can lead to confusion and mistakes.

2) Shyness and Discomfort – these are real things that do hinder a conversation at a workplace. You have a great idea that you want to contribute but every time you are about to speak, the thought of having ‘all eyes on you’ and actually articulating this idea is too much and uncomfortable. Being too shy and uncomfortable in a workplace doesn’t allow for the worker to show what they are capable of doing and hinders the production of work overall.

3) Trivial Doubts – you might be thinking to yourself ‘why must I ask my senior such a trivial doubt such as rounding off one digit in a transaction’ and end up costing the firm thousands of dollars. Prevention is better than cure. It is a good idea to ask co-workers or management even a trivial doubt question (it may be a big deal and you’ll be grateful you asked) to prevent any further issues.

4) Body Language – I cannot stress enough how non-verbal body language speaks louder than words. Mixed signals (are they listening or not, should I repeat myself, how much have they understood) all cause confusion and work may suffer because of it. It is important to make sure (as my teacher used to tell us in class) that you are there both in body and mind. If you miss something because you got distracted for a few minutes, make sure you catch up either with a colleague or just ask them directly. They might appreciate the honesty (no one can pay attention 24/7 and the mind is bound to wander).

Some other barriers that one may face are:

5) Cultural Barriers – how people think, react and see the world can vary widely because of culture. This might give rise to stereotypes and other preconceived notions and sometimes make the person feel uncomfortable. For example, telling a person of Asian origin to handle the finances just because they are known to be good at math, is a gross violation of an employee’s personal merit.

6) Multitasking – with access to technology at work, employees feel that it’s necessary to check e-mail, answer customer calls and send text messages at the same time. Multitasking is a barrier to productivity because it can prohibit an employee from remembering important information and not being able to perform their job satisfactorily.

7) Stress – the amount of stress an employee feels when faced with many uncompleted duties prevents one from actually completing said tasks or opening up to a superior about it for fear of repercussions. Please speak up if you think your plate is too full. It is not healthy with regard to mental fatigue and physical health.

8) Physical Barriers – the closed doors and cubicles can be a subtle hindrance to communication. People in open rooms tend to talk more and walk about more freely.

These are just some of many different barriers that arise every day at one’s workplace. At the end of the day, open and effective communication between employers and employees goes a long way in solving issues and prevents new ones from cropping up.

This article was written by volunteer blogger Riya Prem Raaj and edited by volunteer editor Erin Murphy.

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Library

Sexual Harassment Interventions

Sexual harassment affects people of all ages and races and of both sexes. Although it has been outlawed under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and prohibited under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, many companies and schools have yet to develop adequate policies and procedures for addressing sexual harassment. Evidence of this is apparent in the increased number of grievances filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC): from 10,532 filings in 1993 to 15,889 in 1997 (Ganzel 1998). The Supreme Court rulings in Faragher v. City of Boca Raton and Burlington Industries v. Ellerth are an attempt to halt these incidents by requiring harassed employees to work within their companies to resolve grievances before turning to the EEOC. They place responsibility on the employer to set guidelines for preventing sexual harassment and on the employee to follow them (Barrier 1998).

This Digest examines the implications of federal laws covering sexual harassment, the characteristics of company policies and grievance procedures to prevent and report sexual harassment, and program strategies for preventing sexual harassment in schools and workplaces.

What Institutions Can Do

The Supreme Court’s recent rulings are motivating employers to take actions that reflect their compliance with federal laws as protection against sexual harassment litigation. Emerging from the literature on sexual harassment prevention are three key steps that employers can take to counter sexual harassment (Kimble-Ellis 1998; “Protecting Employees” 1998):

1. Develop a strong company policy that specifies in writing outlawed behaviors and penalties for their demonstration

2. Establish grievance procedures for reporting, processing, and resolving complaints

3. Provide sexual harassment training for supervisors, managers, and workers that explains what sexual harassment means and how it can be recognized, confronted, and averted.

Strong Company Policy

Although a number of large companies have already established policies governing sexual harassment, effective compliance with the Supreme Court’s rulings on sexual harassment requires that all companies, as well as schools that receive federal funds, establish sexual harassment policies that they put in writing, disseminate, and enforce (Barrier 1998). A company policy addressing sexual harassment must clearly specify (1) the behaviors that constitute harassment and the company’s intolerance of such behaviors; (2) channels employees must follow to report sexual harassment complaints to their supervisors or designated company representative; (3) strategies the company will follow in investigating and resolving a complaint, including confidentiality practices; (4) warnings that violation of the policy will result in punishments that could include dismissal; and (5) assurance that retaliation will not be allowed (Ganzel 1998).

Good policy statements reflect collaboration among executives, supervisors, and employees and among administrators, teachers, and students. They respond to the organizational climate, which includes family and community as well as school influences. Because “sexual harassment is a manifestation of deeply held beliefs, attitudes, feelings, and cultural norms . . , it is predicated on sociocultural views and sex-role stereotypes” (Brandenburg 1997, p. 39). It reflects the abuse of power, a gender-power differential, and sometimes power-related retaliation. Some authors add sexual orientation power struggles to that list (ibid.).

In an address to educators at a conference organized by the Safe School Coalition, Marjorie Fink, a national sexual harassment prevention trainer, identified climate as a major component to guide prevention efforts (“Trainer: Stop Bullying” 1999). Every school, like every business, has its unique climate. In some organizations, verbal teasing, dirty jokes, and sexual pictures may be the dominant behavior that reflects sexual harassment; in others, improper touching, stalking, or shoving may be the misbehavior (ibid.). When all members of a work organization or school become involved in establishing policy, these contextual issues can be more effectively addressed and behaviors targeted.

Grievance Procedures

Although companies are required by law to handle grievances internally before seeking outside litigation, schools are also finding internal grievances procedures to be more effective in handling sexual harassment complaints. “Internal grievance procedures may save time, minimize emotional and financial expense, and be more sensitive to all persons” (Brandenburg 1997, p. 53).

Effective grievance procedures should clearly define the steps for submitting complaints, both informally and formally. Procedures for informal complaints should detail how the harassed person should go about seeking advice or counsel about a proper response to the offending behavior and describe the process of mediation, negotiation, and problem solving that may be used to resolve the issue. Procedures for formal complaints should require that the grievance be submitted in writing and present all facts related to the incident-who, what, where, when, the scope of the incident, and names of individuals involved. Typically, these reports must be submitted immediately after the incident, not weeks later. However, it is the responsibility of each company and school to specify the procedures it wants its employees or students to follow.

Grievance procedures should also identify the person or persons to whom grievances must be submitted. In the grievance officer model, all complaints are processed through a designated supervisor or officer; in the grievance board or committee model, grievances are submitted to a group (Brandenburg 1997). Although the grievance officer model offers the advantage of one entry point for complaint submission, it has the disadvantage of possibly requiring the harassed employee to deal with someone with whom he or she may be uncomfortable. The committee model, which places the problem in the hands of many, has the disadvantage of requiring greater communication and coordination between committee members and the harassed employee, making it more difficult to ensure confidentiality (ibid.).

Whatever process is adopted, the procedures the grievance officer/committee will follow must also be identified, e.g., receive the written complaint, identify the specific harassment, interview complainants, interview the accused, interview witnesses, determine if sexual harassment has occurred, present the findings to both parties along with the consequences of the action, and require employees to accept mandatory arbitration (“Protecting Employees” 1998).

Sexual Harassment Prevention Training

No policy or set of grievance procedures will be effective unless all employees, from supervisors to line workers, administrators to custodial staff, are knowledgeable about the company’s policy and grievance procedures. To prevent vulnerability to sexual harassment allegations, an organization must provide access to training for all employees and document their participation in and completion of the training program. Employees need to be aware that, although the recent Supreme Court’s rulings held companies liable for harassment by supervisors even when management was unaware of the incidents, they made it clear that companies cannot be held liable for incidents in which an harassed employee did not follow the company’s reporting procedures or did not participate in company-sponsored sexual harassment prevention training (“Protecting Employees” 1998).

Sexual harassment training should explain the law that prohibits sexual harassment, identify the actions that may be categorized as sexual harassment, describe the company’s policy and its grievance procedures. However, the training should also heighten awareness of sexual harassment and present strategies for intervention.

Effective programs define sexual harassment and provide information on its incidence. Sexual harassment should be defined as “unwanted sexual attention that would be offensive to a reasonable person and that negatively affects the work or school environment” (Brandenburg 1997, p. 1). The key word in the definition is “unwanted.” Two categories of sexual harassment may be given to guide thinking during the training program: quid pro quo harassment and hostile environment harassment.

Quid pro quo harassment occurs “when submission to or rejection of such (unwelcome sexual) conduct by an individual is used as the basis for employment decisions affecting such individual” (ibid., p. 2). Hostile environment harassment, on the other hand, occurs “when unwelcome sexual conduct causes the environment to become hostile, intimidating, or offensive, and unreasonably interferes with an employee’s or student’s work” (ibid., p. 3). Training programs should ensure that participants understand these definitions so that they can construct their own meanings of sexual harassment as they discuss the experiences of others.

Effective programs reflect good teaching and learning practices. They are descriptive, intensive, relevant, and positive (Berkowitz 1998):

They require the involvement of all members of a company or school and include family and community members who have an influence on the employees’ or students’ life.

They offer participatory, problem-based learning experiences that are interactive and actively engage the student in learning.

They are tailored to the “age, community culture, and socioeconomic status of the trainee and are contextualized to the individual’s peer group experiences” (ibid., p. 3).

They present information from a positive viewpoint, encouraging healthy behavior rather than forbidding poor behavior.

Effective programs teach intervention skills. Berkowitz (1998) identifies the following steps for converting bystander behavior to intervention (pp. 3-4):

Help learners to recognize sexual harassment incidents by providing them with appropriate and relevant definitions and examples of sexual harassment.

Help learners to interpret which behaviors signify harassment.

Encourage participants to share their experiences and their intolerance for certain behaviors as a means of illustrating their common ground.

Encourage participants to feel responsible for dealing with the problem.

Teach intervention skills and provide opportunities to practice them. Use role play scenarios to help participants find comfortable and appropriate ways to express their discomfort with another’s behavior.

Help participants be free of retaliation. Explore participants’ fears about retaliation and provide examples of how interventions will be supported.

Conclusion

Sexual harassment training programs for a business or school organization’s supervisors and employees can be internally or externally provided. Some companies are making training available online. Corpedia Training Technologies in Phoenix, or example, has an Internet-linked CD-ROM-based sexual harassment program to help employees and their supervisors recognize and take steps to prevent sexual harassment (“Sexual Harassment Training Online” 1999).

Although the sources of training may vary across organizations, each program should result in the achievement of designated learning outcomes. Case studies, scenarios, and ill-structured problems offer ways to connect knowledge about sexual harassment to its prevention in the workplace. The ultimate success of a company’s or school’s sexual harassment prevention training program will be reflected in the organization’s ability to eliminate the behavior and avoid sexual harassment lawsuits.

References

Barrier, M. (1998) Sexual Harassment. Nation’s Business 86(12), 14-19.

Berkowitz, A. (1998) How We Can Prevent Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault. Educator’s Guide to Controlling Sexual Harassment 6(1), 1-4.

Brandenburg, J. (1997) Confronting Sexual Harassment. New York: Teacher’s College, Columbia University.

Ganzel, R. (1998) What Sexual-Harassment Training Really Prevents. Training 35(10), 86-94.

Kimble-Ellis, S. (1998) Safeguard against Sexual Harassment. Black Enterprise 29(5), 36.

Protecting Employees-and Your Business. (1998) Nation’s Business 86(12), 18-19.

Sexual Harassment Training Online. (1999) Best’s Review 99(9), 82.

Trainer: Stop Bullying and Teasing in K-6 to Prevent Sexual Harassment Now, Later. (1999) Educator’s Guide to Controlling Sexual Harassment 6(4), 1, 3.

This project has been funded at least in part with Federal funds from the U.S. Department of Education under Contract No. ED-99-CO-0013. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Education nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Digests may be freely reproduced and are available at <http://ericacve.org/fulltext.asp>.

This paper came from:

123HelpMe.com (2016) Sexual Harassment Interventions. 123HelpMe.com Retrieved from http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=35825.

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Library

Sexual Harassment and Diversity in the Workplace

Introduction
Workforce diversity is a new term in business and industry. It is a term that is still uncommon in various areas of the world. Diversity can be considered by taking two different perspectives. Firstly, there are those fundamental individual attributes that make everyone on the earth unique for example disability, personality among others. Secondly, there are those differences that exist based on group membership for example race, ethnicity, and cultural differences among others (Barak, 131). Diversity is being an associate of either an indiscernible or discernible groups that are believed to be mainstream in the society (Barak, 131).

Pluralism, on the other hand, is the distribution of supremacy among the many groups of the society (Carroll and Buchholtz, 8). In other words, pluralism means decentralization and diversification of authority from a group of few individuals from the top to the majority at the bottom of the societal hierarchy.

Workplace diversity brings about a variety of ethical issues in the places of work. For example, sexual harassment due to sexual orientation, racism and ethnicity, gender issues among others. Sexual harassment is characterized by annoying sexual advances and innuendos meant for others; who think that such actions violate their right or interfere with their work. People take part in sexual harassment because of their sexual desires, or when, they want some sexual favors; prompted by the prevailing situation. For example, employees may be harassed sexually, by their managers, so that they get promotion. Sexual harassment is one of the ethical issues that face managers and employees alike. If it is perceived in an organization, it can strain the relationship between the organization and the society (Carroll and Buchholtz, 4).

My personal view
Regarding sexual harassment, I personally think that people need to have a more mature way of dealing with issues of sexuality. We need to go about them more carefully and privately. Sexual advances can be made provided the two individuals consent on the same. These advances should not be pegged on certain expectations on favoritism in workplace but can be for the continuity of the genealogy or for the purposes of procreation.
Various cultural practices have seen various forms of sexual relationships that exist within the society. As a Christian, I think is wrong and unfair to engage in irresponsible sexual behaviors like sexual harassment. We should bear in mind that it is against Christian teaching and against the ten commandments of God. I strongly believe that matters of sexuality and sexual harassment are matters of personal commitment to one special individual and having personal principles to adhere to.

In many places of the world, sexual harassment has prompted the enactment of various legal frameworks to guard against the vice. Besides, various nation-states have various definitions of what constitute sexual harassment. At workplaces, various suggestions have been postulated to deal with sexual harassment. For example, telecommuting, career development, education and training on what is tantamount to sexual harassment (Barak, 258).
Telecommuting is a program where one can work from home and not necessarily be present at workplace. Besides, education and training of workers and sensitizing on their rights as well as the course of action that they need to take when faced with sexual harassment and lastly, there should be clear paths for career development and advancement for those vulnerable to sexual harassment.

In conclusion, there are several ethical issues that arise in business and industries. It calls for every individual to counter these perceived vices in society. Thus, matters of inclusion and personal intuition are very paramount to be alive in a world which is more ethical.

Works Cited

Barak, M. (2010) Managing Diversity: Toward a Globally Inclusive Workplace. Los Angeles: SAGE

Carroll, A & Buchholtz A. (2008) Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder
Management
Mason: Cengage Learning

This essay is from:
123help.com (2016) Sexual Harassment and Diversity in the Workplace. 123HelpMe.com. Retrieved from http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=238070.